OECD – Preliminary Official Development Assistance (ODA) levels in 2021

In 2021, Official Development Assistance (ODA) by member countries of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) amounted to USD 178.9 billion, representing 0.33% of their combined GNI. This total included USD 174.9 billion in the form of grants, loans to sovereign entities, debt relief and contributions to multilateral institutions(calculated on a grant-equivalent basis); USD 1.1 billion to development-oriented private sector instrument (PSI) vehicles and USD 3.0 billion in the form of net loans and equities to private companies operating in ODA-eligible countries.

Total ODA in 2021 rose by 4.4% in real terms compared to 2020, reaching a new peak. The increase is mostly due to DAC members’ support for COVID-19 activities, particularly in the form of vaccine donations to respond to global vaccine inequities. If the costs for vaccines are excluded, ODA grew by 0.6% in real terms compared to 2020 (see Table 3a).

In-donor refugee costs amounted to USD 9.3 billion in 2021, practically unchanged in real terms compared to 2020 and representing 5.2% of DAC member countries’ total ODA. In real terms, ODA volume for in-donor refugee costs has nearly halved since its peak in 2016where it amounted to USD 16 billion and represented 11.0% of total ODA.
Contributions to international organisations rose by 9.4%, whereas other bilateral ODA for programmes and projects and technical assistance (excluding in-donor refugees and vaccine donations) fell by 3.3%, due in part to a drop in bilateral sovereign ODA lending.

In 2021, the United States continued to be the largest DAC member country of ODA (USD 42.3billion), followed by Germany (USD 32.2 billion), Japan (USD 17.6 billion), the United Kingdom(USD 15.8 billion), and France (USD 15.4 billion). The following countries met or exceeded the United Nations’ ODA as a percentage of GNI target of 0.7%: Denmark (0.70%), Germany(0.74%), Luxembourg (0.99%), Norway (0.93%) and Sweden (0.92%).

Many providers beyond the DAC have long traditions of development cooperation. Amongst these, according to the preliminary figures for 2021 reported to the OECD, Türkiye exceeded the 0.7% ODA/GNI target with 0.95%.In 2021, total ODA for all DAC member countries combined as a per cent of GNI stood at 0.33%,the same level as it was in 2020.ODA rose in twenty-three DAC member countries, for many as a result of support for the COVID19 pandemic, and it fell in six countries.G7 donors provided 76% of total ODA and DAC-EU countries 45%.ODA from the nineteen DAC countries that are EU members was USD 81.3 billion, an increase of 4.3% in real terms compared to 2020, and represented 0.49% of their combined GNI.


Greece’s ODA for the year 2021, amounted to USD264 million, (0,12% of GNI). Bilateral assistance amounted to USD 6 million and multilateral assistance to USD 258 million. Total ODA decreased by 23.9% (in real terms) compared to 2020 (USD 325 million, 0.17% of GNI)due to a lesser amount of ODA recorded for in-donor refugee costs compared to 2020.

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