OECD Edition: Development Co-operation Profiles 2019

Trends and insights on development finance

The OECD’s Development Co-operation Profiles compile and analyse verified statistics and trends on how development assistance is allocated geographically, to sectors, multilateral and civil society organisations, cross-cutting priorities such as gender equality and women’s economic empowerment and the environment and climate, and to mobilise private finance. The profiles cover official and philanthropic providers of aid, official development assistance (ODA) and development finance. These providers include members of the OECD and its Development Assistance Committee (DAC), other countries and philanthropic foundations. The Development Co-operation Profiles are published annually and are a pillar of the OECD’s Development Co-operation Report.

Overall net ODA flows from DAC members decreased in 2017 and preliminary data show they also fell in 2018, standing at USD 147.2 billion and USD 143.2 billion respectively compared to USD 147.6 billion in 2016.

ODA rose in 17 DAC members in 2018, but fell in 12. Of the 17 providers beyond the DAC that report to the OECD, 16 have increased their ODA levels since 2014 and these providers now represent 10% of ODA reported to the OECD. The 26 private philanthropic foundations sharing data with the OECD provided USD 6.1 billion for development in 2017.

Half of DAC members have updated their development co-operation policies and strategies since 2017. The new policies and strategies identify how members will contribute to achieving the SDGs in developing countries. The share of bilateral ODA that is programmed at the country level has decreased. DAC members are increasingly funding multilateral and global entities to address global challenges and public goods, as well as using multilateral channels to directly support country programmes.

For 12 DAC members, ODA in 2018 was lower than in 2017. In-donor refugee costs account for most of the recent fluctuations in total ODA. In Japan and the United States, the fall in ODA reflects cuts in their funding to the multilateral system. Seven countries met the UN target to provide 0.7% of gross national income (GNI) as ODA in 2017 and 2018.

The share of ODA provided in non-grant form has increased for DAC members over the last decade, rising from 11% of gross bilateral ODA in 2008 to 18% in 2017. In 2017, France, Germany, Japan, Korea and the EU institutions provided more than 20% of their gross bilateral ODA in non-grant form. ODA remains a critical source of financing for fragile contexts. In 2017, fragile contexts received 68% of earmarked ODA, or USD 74.3 billion – the highest share in six years. Over the year 2016-17, ODA from DAC countries to fragile contexts increased by 8%, ODA from non-DAC providers decreased by 3% and ODA through multilateral channels increased by 11.5%.

Overall, humanitarian assistance increased by 144% between 2010 and 2017, as global humanitarian needs have escalated, despite a small 8% dip between 2017 and 2018. Geographically, the Syrian Arab Republic was the largest fragile recipient in 2017 – with USD 10.4 billion, or 14% of all aid to fragile contexts – followed by Ethiopia (6% or USD 4.1 billion) and Afghanistan (5% or USD 3.8 billion).

In 2017, a third of bilateral ODA from DAC members (USD 40.1 billion) supported the environment and a quarter (USD 30.7 billion) focused on climate change. Top performers among DAC members for ODA supporting the environment in 2017 were Iceland (72%), followed by France (62%), Japan (52%) and Germany (47%).

In 2017, a total of USD 46.4 billion from DAC members, corresponding to 39% of their combined bilateral ODA, addressed gender equality as either a principal (dedicated) or a significant (integrated/mainstreamed) objective. Top performers in 2017 in terms of the percentage of their ODA supporting gender equality were Canada (87%), Ireland (87%), Sweden (87%) and Iceland (79%).

Official providers

Australia: Australia’s aid focuses on its immediate neighbourhood, the Indo-Pacific region. Australia’s bilateral ODA is focused geographically, with over 60% going to the Asia-Pacific region. In 2018, Australia provided USD 3.1 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.23% of GNI.

Austria: The three-year programme defines 11 priority countries, each falling into one of three categories: i) South East Europe and the southern Caucuses, ii) fragile and crisis-affected states and iii) least developed countries (LDCs). In 2018, Austria provided USD 1.18 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.26% of GNI.

Azerbaijan: Azerbaijan is an emerging provider of development co-operation, though it still receives ODA. Since 2011, almost 90 countries benefited from the aid provided by Azerbaijan. In 2017, Azerbaijan provided USD 19 million in total ODA. This represented 0.05% of GNI.

Belgium: Belgium’s policy prioritises least developed countries (LDCs) and fragile states. In addition other policy priorities include a stronger focus on private sector development, climate change, digital for development and human rights-based approaches. In 2018, Belgium provided USD 2.3 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.43% of GNI.

Canada: Canada’s development co-operation is guided by its Feminist International Assistance Policy, which aims to reduce poverty and build a more peaceful, inclusive and prosperous world, in line with Canada’s foreign policy efforts. In 2018, Canada provided USD 4.65 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.28% of GNI.

Chile: Chile’s vision, policies and international strategy reflect its dual role as beneficiary and provider country. Chile’s priority partner countries are primarily in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) as well as sub-Saharan Africa. In 2017, Chile’s international development co-operation reached USD 24 million.

Croatia: Croatia is moving away from traditional forms of support towards more technical and other non-financial forms that encourage knowledge sharing and experience as well as mutual learning. In 2018, Croatia provided USD 54.9 million in total ODA. This represented 0.1% of GNI.

Czech Republic: The Czech Republic provides the vast majority of its ODA to multilateral entities, primarily the EU. It places a strong emphasis in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Georgia, Moldova, and Zambia. In 2018, the Czech Republic provided USD 323 million in total ODA. This represented 0.14% of GNI.

Denmark: Denmark is a strong supporter of the multilateral system and of civic space. Denmark is developing business partnerships and increasingly blending public finance with pension funds to invest in the SDGs in developing countries and emerging markets. In 2018, Denmark provided USD 2.58 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.72% of GNI.

Estonia: The main objective of Estonian development co-operation is to contribute to the eradication of poverty and to attaining the SDGs. In 2018, Estonia provided USD 48.6 million in total ODA. This represented 0.16% of GNI.

European Union institutions: In 2017, the EU and its member states adopted the New European Consensus for Development. The Consensus provides a common strategic vision with a focus on poverty reduction and contributing to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Collectively with its member states, the EU constitutes the world’s largest donor. In 2018, the EU institutions provided USD 16.4 billion in total ODA.

Finland: Finland focuses its action in four priority areas: i) the rights and status of women and girls, ii) the growth of economies to generate more jobs, livelihoods and well-being, iii) democratic and better-functioning societies and iv) food security, access to water and energy, and sustainable use of natural resources. In 2018, Finland provided USD 983 million in total ODA. This represented 0.36% of GNI.

France: France has played a leading role in international stability, through its role in maintaining security, particularly in the Sahel. France has also prioritised the environment and biodiversity in its global efforts towards sustainable development, in support of the Paris Agreement, and pledged to provide EUR 5 billion in climate finance by 2020, and successfully created innovative development financing mechanisms. In 2018, France provided USD 12.2 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.43% of GNI.

Germany: Germany is a leader in prioritising climate change in its development co-operation, notably through support for climate risk insurance and clean energy. Furthermore, Germany engages actively with large emerging economies, particularly on global public goods. In 2018, Germany provided USD 25.0 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.61% of GNI.

Greece: The 2008 global financial crisis significantly impacted Greece’s economy, requiring financial assistance from the countries of the Euro area and the International Monetary Fund. Cuts in public sector expenditure significantly impacted Greece’s ODA. While Greece continued to meet its multilateral commitments, including to European institutions, bilateral ODA was limited to expenditure on scholarships. In response to the migration crisis, Greece’s expenditure on in-donor refugee costs rose from around USD 16-17 million per year over 2012-14 to USD 150 million in 2016, representing 40% of total ODA and 92% of bilateral ODA. In 2018, Greece provided USD 282 million in total ODA. This represented 0.13% of GNI.

Hungary: Hungary’s development co-operation strategy seeks to foster sustainable development, by promoting economic development, enhancing local human capacities, developing health services and promoting water management. In 2018, Hungary provided USD 190 million in total ODA. This represented 0.14% of GNI.

Iceland: International development co-operation is an integral part of Iceland’s foreign policy, whose efforts are concentrated in least developed countries (LDCs) in Africa. In 2018, Iceland provided USD 81 million in total ODA. This represented 0.31% of GNI.

Ireland: Ireland’s development policy priorities are gender equality, humanitarian assistance, climate change and governance. Ireland stands out for its focus on least developed countries (LDCs). In 2018, Ireland provided USD 928 million in total ODA. This represented 0.31% of GNI. Israel: Israel’s ultimate goal is to increase its international development activity and perhaps in the foreseeable future to create a development finance institution. In 2018, Israel provided USD 434.3 million in total ODA. This represented 0.12% of gross national income (GNI).

Italy: The primary objectives of Italy’s co-operation are poverty eradication, reducing inequalities and sustainable development; human rights, including gender equality, democracy and rule of law; and conflict prevention and peace-building. Close to half of ODA was multilateral, while bilateral ODA focused primarily on sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa. In 2018, Italy provided USD 5.01 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.24% of GNI.

Japan: Japan aims to contribute to peace and prosperity, promote human security, and support self-reliant development based on Japan’s experience and expertise. Its assistance supports sharing of universal values such as freedom, democracy, respect for basic human rights and the rule of law in order to realise a peaceful, stable and secure society. In 2018, Japan provided USD 14.2 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.28% of GNI.

Kazakhstan: In 2017, Kazakhstan provided USD 35 million in total ODA. This represented 0.02% of gross national income (GNI).

Korea: The 2016-20 strategy includes an updated list of partner countries and ODA targets and helps to identify Korea’s policy priorities, including sharing Korea’s development experience and building economic and social infrastructure. In 2018, Korea provided USD 2.35 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.15% of GNI.

Kuwait: The Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development targets projects in various sectors, notably agriculture, electricity, irrigation, industry, transport, telecommunications, water and sewerage, and health and education. In 2017, Kuwait provided USD 570 million in total ODA. This represented 0.41% of GNI.

Latvia: The objective of Latvia’s development co-operation policy is to contribute to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda in developing countries, particularly in priority partner countries (EU’s Eastern Partnership countries). In 2018, Latvia provided USD 33.8 million in total ODA. This represented 0.10% of GNI.

Lithuania: Lithuania’s main principles of development cooperation are: partnership with partner countries, partner country’s ownership, solidarity, efficiency, transparency and responsibility, coordination and complementarity, and policy coherence. In 2018, Lithuania provided USD 58.9 million in total ODA. This represented 0.11% of GNI.

Luxembourg: Luxembourg’s strategy, prioritises four themes: i) access to quality basic social services, ii) socio-economic integration of women and youth, iii) inclusive and sustainable growth and iv) inclusive governance. It focuses on seven partner countries, five of which are in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2018, Luxembourg provided USD 473 million in total ODA. This represented 0.98% of GNI.

Mexico: Mexico contributes to the systematisation of South-South and triangular co-operation practices and to the adaptation of the internationally agreed upon development effectiveness principles to the southern context. According to OECD estimates, in 2017, Mexico’s international development co-operation reached USD 340 million.

Netherlands: A new policy paper published in 2018 shifts the focus of the Netherlands’ development co-operation to the unstable regions of the Sahel, the Horn of Africa, and the Middle East and North Africa, with a view to tackling the root causes of poverty, migration, terrorism and climate change. In 2018, the Netherlands provided USD 5.6 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.61% of GNI.

New Zealand: The 20-year horizon, whole-of-government Pacific Framework provides long-term direction to New Zealand’s priorities within the Pacific region. In 2018, New Zealand provided USD 556 million in total ODA. This represented 0.28% of GNI.

Norway: Norway is delivering more of its aid through multilateral channels. Norway is also adapting its humanitarian response to the changing patterns of crises, backed by a clear strategy, an increased budget and solid partnerships. In 2018, Norway provided USD 4.26 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.94% of GNI.

Poland: Poland’s co-operation focuses on eastern neighbours, with 4 out of 12 priority countries in this region. The programme’s thematic priorities are good governance, democracy and human rights, human capital, entrepreneurship and private sector, sustainable agriculture and rural development, and environmental protection. In 2018, Poland provided USD 763 million in total ODA. This represented 0.14% of GNI.

Portugal: Portugal’s development co-operation is committed to the overall goal of poverty eradication and is developing new policies, instruments and ways of working in line with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. In 2018, Portugal provided USD 390 million in total ODA. This represented 0.17% of GNI.

Romania: In 2018, Romania became a Participant in the OECD Development Assistance Committee. In 2018, Romania provided USD 252 million in total ODA. This represented 0.11% of GNI.

Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabia’s foreign aid is guided by its foreign policy and its principles to assist developing countries. In 2017, Saudi Arabia provided USD 908 million in total ODA.

Slovak Republic: The Slovak strategy identifies six focus sectors and a geographical focus on the Western Balkans, the Eastern Partnership of the EU, East Africa and the Middle East. In 2018, the Slovak Republic provided USD 133 million in total ODA. This represented 0.13% of GNI.

Slovenia: Slovenia’s geographical priorities are in the Western Balkans, the European neighbourhood and least developed countries (LDCs) in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2018, Slovenia provided USD 83 million in total ODA. This represented 0.16% of GNI.

Spain: Spain outlines seven priorities, all linked to the SDGs: i) zero hunger, ii) good health and well-being, iii) quality education, iv) gender equality, v) clean water and sanitation, vi) decent work and economic growth and vii) peace, justice and strong institutions. In 2018, Spain provided USD 2.87 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.20% of GNI.

Sweden: Sweden has shown leadership at the international level on peace and conflict prevention, environmental sustainability and climate change, and gender equality. In 2018, Sweden provided USD 5.8 billion in total ODA. This represented 1.04% of GNI. Switzerland: Switzerland is a strong multilateral player that makes its voice heard when setting international norms, especially on issues related to climate change, food security, water, migration, health, and finance and trade. In 2018, Switzerland provided USD 3.1 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.44% of GNI.

Türkiye: The medium-term programmes for development co-operation and humanitarian aid, covering three or four year periods, determine the specific areas of intervention and expected outcomes, as well as financial allocations among priority partner countries and sectors. In 2018, Türkiye provided USD 8.61 billion in total ODA. This represented 1.1% of GNI.

United Arab Emirates: The UAE have become one of the largest donors worldwide, focused on improving the effectiveness of its activities. In 2018, the United Arab Emirates provided USD 3.9 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.95% of GNI.

United Kingdom: The United Kingdom’s 2015 aid strategy sets out a restructuring of the aid budget to tackle global challenges – from the root causes of mass migration and disease to the threat of terrorism and global climate change – in addition to retaining a focus on poverty reduction. In 2018, the United Kingdom provided USD 19.4 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.7% of GNI.

USA: As the largest bilateral donor of the DAC, the United States’ ODA constitutes a significant share of global development co-operation funding. The United States recently produced self-reliance country roadmaps for partner countries, building on 17 metrics. In 2018, the United States provided USD 34.3 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.17% of GNI.

Other official providers reporting at the aggregate level to the OECD (not members of the OECD)

Bulgaria: Bulgaria has been a provider of development co-operation since it became a member of the EU. The Western Balkans and the Black Sea region represent priority geographic areas for Bulgaria’s development policy. In 2018, Bulgaria provided USD 68.5 million in total ODA. This represented 0.11% of GNI.

Chinese Taipei: Chinese Taipei’s development co-operation is driven by the country’s development strategy and global trends, enshrined in the Four-Year National Development Plan (2017-20). In 2017, Chinese Taipei provided USD 319 million in total ODA. This represented 0.06% of GNI.

Liechtenstein: The 2015 Strategy of the Liechtenstein Development Service (LED) defines education and rural development as the key sectors of Liechtenstein’s development co-operation. In 2017, Liechtenstein provided USD 24.14 million in total ODA.

Malta: Malta’s Implementation Plan has three main strands: i) co-funding of ODA projects as a means of increasing its impact, ii) capacity building and scholarships and iii) humanitarian aid funding. In 2018, Malta provided USD 30.62 million in total ODA. This represented 0.23% of GNI.

Russian Federation: Russia focuses on bilateral aid programmes in the fields of health, food security, education, science and many other spheres towards the achievement of the SDGs. Focus countries are those of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) but also countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Asia-Pacific, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America. In 2018, the Russian Federation provided USD 1 billion in total ODA. This represented 0.06% of GNI.

Thailand: Thailand’s development co-operation is guided by the “Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy” (SEP) – a model that Thailand followed for its own development and which aims at providing a balanced and stable development to achieve the SDGs. In 2017, Thailand provided USD 133 million in total ODA. This represented 0.03% of GNI.

Other official providers not reporting to the OECD

Brazil: Brazilian South-South and triangular co-operation has expanded its scope; facilitated regional, sub-regional and interregional integration; provided innovative approaches for collective actions; and strengthened its contribution to sustainable development. In 2016, Brazil’s international development co-operation reached USD 907.7 million.

China: China’s development co-operation respects the sovereignty of beneficiary countries, help reduce and eliminate poverty, improve livelihood and ecological environment, promote economic development and social progress, enhance the ability of recipients to develop independently, and develop friendly and co-operative relations with the recipients. As per the OECD estimates, in 2017, China’s international development co-operation reached USD 4.8 billion.

Colombia: Colombia is both a beneficiary of ODA and a provider of South-South and triangular co-operation. From 2012 to 2019, Colombia’s contribution to South-South and triangular co-operation amounted to USD 35 million.

Costa Rica: Costa Rica has a dual role in development co-operation. It provides development co-operation only in the form of technical co-operation through bilateral and regional initiatives by triangular and South-South co-operation. In 2018, the in-kind international co-operation offered by Costa Rica channelled more than USD 4.5 million.

India: India emphasises in its development co-operation mutual benefit, and combines a range of investment, trade and development instruments in its co-operation with developing countries. India is engaged in triangular co-operation, partnering with several international organisations and DAC members. In 2017, India’s international development co-operation reached USD 3 billion.

Indonesia: The three main modalities of Indonesia’s development co-operation are training and workshops, expert dispatch, and channelling funds through multilateral organisations. Indonesia estimates that in the period 2016-18 its development co-operation financing reached approximately USD 685.88 million.

Qatar: Its strategy focuses on human development and prioritises education, health and economic infrastructure sectors. According to the Qatar Fund for Development, in 2018, Qatar’s international development co-operation reached USD 585 million.

South Africa: South Africa prioritises co-operation with the African continent, with a strong focus on member countries of the Southern African Development Community. According to estimates by the OECD, in 2017, South Africa’s international development co-operation reached USD 104 million.


Arcus Foundation: Guided by the vision of the founder and the shared commitment to the global human rights and conservation movements, the Arcus Foundation partners with experts and advocates for change to ensure that LGBTQ people and apes thrive in a world where social and environmental justice, and respect and dignity for all are a reality. In 2017, the Arcus Foundation provided USD 15.4 million in private development finance.

Bernard van Leer Foundation: Guided by the vision that all children deserve a good start in life, the foundation works worldwide to inspire and inform large-scale action to improve the health and well-being of babies, toddlers and the people who care for them. It provides financial support and expertise to partners in government, civil society and business to help test and scale effective services for young children and families. In 2017, the Bernard van Leer Foundation provided USD 14.2 million in private development finance.

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation: Guided by the belief that every life has equal value, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation works to help all people lead healthy, productive lives. In developing countries, the foundation focuses on improving people’s health and giving them the chance to lift themselves out of hunger and extreme poverty. In 2017, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation provided USD 3.7 billion in private development finance.

C&A Foundation: The foundation was established to fundamentally transform the apparel industry, in collaboration with the entire fashion industry – from manufacturers, government and local charities to major brands, including C&A. In 2017, the C&A Foundation provided USD 29.7 million in private development finance.

Carnegie Corporation of New York: Guided by its funder’s vision, the foundation has devoted unremitting effort toward international peace and the advancement of education and knowledge to support education activities across the United States, and later the world. In 2017, the Carnegie Corporation of New York provided USD 24.2 million in private development finance.

Charity Projects Ltd (Comic Relief): With a vision to create a just world free from poverty, Comic Relief supports people and communities in the United Kingdom and internationally. Comic Relief does this by funding and investing in outstanding organisations across the United Kingdom and internationally to help tackle some of the key issues of our time. In 2017, Comic Relief provided USD 49.9 million in private development finance.

Children’s Investment Fund Foundation: The co-founders set out to improve the lives of children living in poverty in developing strategies that have a lasting impact. Areas of work include maternal and child health, adolescent sexual health, nutrition, education, deworming, tackling child slavery and exploitation, and supporting smart ways to slow down and stop climate change. In 2017, the CIFF provided USD 207.1 million in private development finance.

Conrad N. Hilton Foundation: The foundation provides funds to non-profit organisations working to improve the lives of individuals living in poverty and experiencing disadvantage in the United States and across the world. In 2017, the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation provided USD 50.6 million in private development finance.

David and Lucile Packard Foundation: The foundation invests in effective organisations and leaders, collaborates with them to identify strategic solutions, and supports them over time to reach their common goals. It funds work domestically and around the world on the issues its founders cared about most: improving the lives of children, enabling the creative pursuit of science, advancing reproductive health, and conserving and restoring the Earth’s natural systems. In 2017, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation provided USD 118.6 million in private development finance.

Ford Foundation: The Ford Foundation is active both domestically and internationally. Programme areas working to address inequality in all its forms include: Civic Engagement and Government, Creativity and Free Expression, Gender, Racial and Ethnic Justice, Natural Resources and Climate Change, as well as Future of Work(ers). In 2017, the Ford Foundation provided USD 244.3 million in private development finance.

Gatsby Charitable Foundation: The foundation’s work in Africa focuses on accelerating inclusive and resilient economic growth in East Africa by demonstrating how key sectors can be transformed. In 2017, the Gatsby Charitable Foundation provided USD 12.1 million in private development finance.

Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation: The foundation focuses on local, as well as international, causes. Development-related grant making is primarily administered through its Environmental Conservation programme. In 2017, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation provided USD 49.6 million in private development finance.

Grameen Crédit Agricole Foundation: Its mission is to finance and support microfinance institutions, businesses and projects that promote inclusive finance and the development of rural economies everywhere in the world. In 2017, the Grameen Crédit Agricole Foundation provided USD 37.6 million in private development finance.

H&M Foundation: The H&M Foundation works both on a global scale, creating systemic change with transformative programmes, as well as in local projects to directly address urgent needs. Programme areas targeting developing countries include: Education, Water and Equality. In addition, the foundation also provides emergency relief funds. In 2017, the H&M Foundation provided USD 17.7 million in private development finance.

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation supports creative people, effective institutions and influential networks building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. In 2017, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation provided USD 79.5 million in private development finance. Moreover, the foundation committed USD 239.8 million in 2017.

MasterCard Foundation: The MasterCard Foundation partners with more than visionary organisations to advance education and financial inclusion to catalyse prosperity in developing countries, particularly in Africa. In 2017, the MasterCard Foundation provided USD 277.8 million in private development finance.

MAVA Foundation: The MAVA Foundation mainly provides support for projects in the Mediterranean basin, coastal West Africa and the Alps, as well as for activities with a global dimension. In 2017, the MAVA Foundation provided USD 70.5 million in private development finance.

MetLife Foundation: The MetLife Foundation has been focusing its resources on advancing financial inclusion in the United States and internationally. The foundation also supports local communities and provides humanitarian aid. In 2017, the MetLife Foundation provided USD 16.6 million in private development finance.

Michael & Susan Dell Foundation: The foundation was established in 1999 inspired by their passion for children and by a shared desire to transform the lives of children living in urban poverty. In 2017, the Michael & Susan Dell Foundation provided USD 31.1 million in private development finance.

Oak Foundation: The foundation supports civil society as a pillar of democracy and justice and nurtures innovation and visionary leadership within it. Programmes benefiting developing countries include: Preventing Child Sexual Abuse, Environment, International Human Rights, Issues Affecting Women, Learning Differences, India, Zimbabwe and Brazil. In 2017, the Oak Foundation provided USD 111.2 million in private development finance.

Omidyar Network Fund, Inc.: The Omidyar Network Fund, Inc. (“the foundation”) is the non-profit arm of Omidyar Network, a global network of innovators, entrepreneurs, technologists, advocates, investors, activists and organisations committed to addressing the most critical economic, technological and societal issues of our time. In 2017, the Omidyar Network Fund provided USD 57.1 million in private development finance.

United Postcode Lotteries: The lotteries are funded through selling lots: 50% of gross proceeds are provided to a broad range of organisations working in the field of environmental protection, climate change, human rights, gender equality and social cohesion. In 2017, the United Postcode Lotteries provided USD 363.6 million in private development finance.

Wellcome Trust: Wellcome Trust directly funds research every step of the way from discovery to impact. Its funding schemes offer grants across biomedical science, population health, medical innovation, humanities and social science, and public engagement. In 2017, the Wellcome Trust provided USD 245.3 million in private development finance.

William and Flora Hewlett Foundation: The foundation’s programmes focus on domestic and international issues. Programmes with an international scope include: Global Development and Population, Education, Environment, Cyber and Effective Philanthropy. In 2017, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation provided USD 185.2 million in private development finance.

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